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India’s stance over reduction of emission

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BEFORE COPENHAGEN

1. Development and poverty reduction is its primary and over-riding priority even as it shares responsibility for contributing to global efforts to contain temperature rise and climate change. It is, therefore, in no position to cap or reduce its emissions, though it is working towards slowing the growth of its emissions.

2. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions (mitigation) is the sole responsibility of Annex-I countries (developed nations), as the Kyoto Protocol says.India will take mitigation efforts only if the developed world supports it with technology transfer and finance.

3.
India had repeatedly made it clear that it would not compromise on its three key principles — no legally binding emission cuts, no peaking year and no international review of domestic-funded mitigation actions.

4.
India has already come up with a National Action Plan on Climate Change in line with its responsibility under the Bali roadmap. Several other steps, including a new building code, fuel efficiency standards and massive afforestation, have also been initiated. However, these domestic actions are not open to international scrutiny.

5.
India has assured that it will never allow its per capita emissions to rise above the average per capita emissions of the developed world.

AFTER COPENHAGEN

1.
20-25 per cent cuts in carbon intensity by 2020 over 2005 levels: as a “non-binding” domestic target.

2.
India also agreed to tell the world about the amount of emission reductions that its domestic actions were likely to lead to by a certain year. It was not prepared to do so earlier. These numbers, however, cannot be treated as internationally binding targets.

3.
There were two specific outcomes of the Copenhagen Conference. In Bali, in December 2007, the Conference of Parties had decided to have negotiations on two parallel tracks, both of which were expected to be concluded at Copenhagen. The first track relates to the outcome of the Bali Action Plan and the other track pertains to the commitment of the Annex I Parties for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol in the period extending beyond 2012. These negotiations could not be concluded and the Copenhagen Conference decided to continue these negotiations to be completed at the end of 2010 at the 16th Conference of Parties to be held in Mexico City in December 2010. In this respect, India, South Africa, Brazil, China and other developing countries were entirely successful in ensuring that there was no violation of the mandate for the Bali Action Plan negotiations on the enhanced implementation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The accord clearly sets out the goal of keeping global temperature rise within two degrees Celsius “in context of equity and sustainable development.

4.
India had to act against climate change, calling for a “detailed road map for a low-carbon growth strategy in the 12th five year plan” that starts in 2012.